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Methacholiniumchlorid, Methacholinii chloridum, (2-Acetoxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride, Acetyl-ß-methylcholine chloride
Methacholine is primarily used to diagnose bronchial hyperreactivity, which is the hallmark of asthma and also occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This is accomplished through the bronchial challenge test, or methacholine challenge, in which a subject inhales aerosolized methacholine, leading to bronchoconstriction. Other therapeutic uses are limited by its adverse cardiovascular effects, such as bradycardia and hypotension, which arise from its function as a cholinomimetic. Methacholin is highly active at all of the muscarinic receptors, but has little effect on the nicotinic receptors. Methacholine has a charged quaternary amine structure, rendering it insoluble to lipid cell membranes. Clinically, this means that it will not cross the blood–brain barrier and has poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. It is broken down at a relatively slow rate within the body, due to its relative resistance to acetylcholinesterases.
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients - APIs
Pharmaceutical raw materials are the basis for the production of drugs and can be divided into three categories: Natural products are drugs with vegetable ingredients called Phytopharmaka. These days the majority of them ...