nthocyanins (from Greek anthos = blossom, flower, kyáneos = dark blue) are water-soluble plant pigments that occur in almost all higher plants and give the flowers and fruits their red, violet, blue or bluish black colour. The anthocyanins are counted among the secondary plant substances. They are approved as a food additive under the E number 163. About 250 anthocyanins are known. The anthocyanins have several tasks in the plants: They should 1. Protect plants from the sun’s strong UV light by absorbing certain wavelengths. 2. Help attract insects and other animals by creating color in plants due to their light-absorbing properties. These can help the plants to propagate. 3. Bind free radicals that arise from oxidative stress. Anthocyanins are added as a food additive for coloring, e.g. to fruit jellies, confectionery, fizzy drinks, marmalade, jams, fruit preserves, improvers for pastries, toppings and ice cream.