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Muconomycin-A; 379-Y; Glutinosin-I; Myrothecin-I; NSC-126728
Trichothecenes are powerful mycotoxins that inhibit protein synthesis and induce ribotoxic stress response in mammalian cells. Verrucarin A is a Type D macrocyclic mycotoxin which inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. VC-A strongly inhibits the proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase associated with the inhibition of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin D, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) cdk2, cdk4, cdk6 and cdk inhibitors WAF1/21 and KIP1/27. Verrucarin A also induced apoptosis in CaP cells as characterized by the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1), procaspases-3, -8 and -9 and the inhibition of Bcl-2 family proteins that regulate apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, Bak and Bad). In addition, Verrucarin A also down-regulats the expression of prosurvival phospho-AKT (p-AKT), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) (p65) and phospho-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) signaling proteins.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds fungis which have a very toxic effect on human being. The species of Mycotoxins subdivide to aflatoxins, fumonisines, ochratoxins and fusarium toxins. The name ...